Assignment: 2 Organisational Behaviour Module Title: People’s Management & Organisational Behaviour

[PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
1
Assignment: 2
Organisational Behaviour
Module Title: People’s Management & Organisational
Behaviour
[PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
2
Aims of study:
This assignment defines the organisational behaviour, explains and evaluates its
importance towards issues occurred within organisations, applies these behaviours
to a business and perceives if there are improvements in performance, the factors
which influence the individual’s and group’s behaviour and the benefits deduced
from individual difference and diversity. It also differentiates group and team in sense
of working on projects within organisation and its affect over project as group or as
team and applies this theory to improve organisational effectiveness. It additionally
explains and talks about motivational theories and its uses to motivate individuals
and groups of employees and effects on performance of organisation. Overall this
work is an analysis of organisational behaviour and behaviour of individuals and
groups towards that organization.
Organisational Behaviour
A common definition of Organisational behaviour is that it is the study of individuals,
groups and organisational structure, but on the other hand, organizational behaviour
is an impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behaviours within
organisations, which can affect the performance of the organisation. Organizational
behaviour is a logical control in which a colossal number of scrutinise are led that
enhances its vision base. It examines human behaviour in relation to assorted
communal, political, psychological and commercial conditions that alter the
performance of an organisation. It concentrates on how people contemplate and
behave, focuses on competitive fights for governmental manipulation and impact in
area and examines how wealth is produced and distributed (Robbins, 2009),
(Knights, 2007).
In exercise, however, the hobbies of an association and the act of association cannot
be remote neatly into discrete categories. The bulk of behaviours are probable to
involve a number of simultaneous purposes that associate to the finished procedures
inside an organisation. Consider, for example, a manager briefing departmental
workers on a main unexpected, vital and urgent task. This kind of briefing probably
contains thought of aims and goals, association strategy and construction,
association arrangement, procedure of delegation and empowerment, arrangements
of contact, teamwork, association style and motivation and manipulation systems.
May 10, 2013 [PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
3
The behaviour of the workers will be affected by a combination of individual, cluster,
organisational and environmental factors. The behaviour of people at work cannot be
learned in isolation. This involves thought of contact amid the aims and goals of the
organisation, proper construction, the tasks to be undertaken, the knowledge
retained and methods of grasping out work, the procedure of association and the
external environment. The bottom line is the sooner or afterward every single
association has to present prosperously if it is to survive (Mullins, 2010).
Application of Organisational behaviour in running business
Organizational behaviour is a vital portion of each association and it may be a
precarious span which regulates organization’s accomplishment within each
industry. In analysing the solicitation regarding organizational behaviour of
communication, ethics and decision-making, it can be determined that how these
thoughts have created this firm prosperous, by that the Starbucks Firm has come to
be a well-known globally prosperous company (Mullins, 2010).
Communication within Organisation
Starbucks association has exceptionally successful way of communication.
Interaction within organisation goes more than just the members and to the clients.
The Starbucks website shares the firm’s accompanying values, dream as a firm,
communal obligation and duty proclamations. These styles of contact will tolerate to
permit the association to have accomplishment in their industry (Starbucks
Corporation a, 2013).
Cultural characteristic and values
Hawks et al (2002) assert that The Starbucks Firm exhibits the traditional
characteristics of people orientation and team orientation. The firm realizes their
operatives how vital they are to their association and feels dignified to publicize their
philanthropic activities.
Marques (2008), asserts that ” Starbucks’ performance toward suppliers,
communities, employees and customers gives rise to the awareness that Starbucks
is one of those corporations that does not explicitly use the term spirituality at work
for their actions, nonetheless live it to the fullest.” Starbucks displays this divine
May 10, 2013 [PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
4
culture in their elevation of fair transactions, environmental contributions and
workplace diversity.
It results that Starbucks is maintaining a forceful call for an outstanding locale to
effort by emphasizing its metiers in its attained cultural physiognomies,
remunerations and spiritual philosophy. Starbucks can uphold this forceful
organizational culture alongside abiding-by dedication to its operatives and
customers.
Decision Making
When we produce company decisions, assess presentations or bypass judgments,
our perception encircling such events aid convince our subsequent sequence of
association (Goldstein, 2006). Since Starbucks comprehends that decisions can be
established on individual’s observations it is affected by education, principles, or
present state of mind and models are industrialized to escort people across the
process. Starbucks post some decision creating behaviour’s models established on
“Ethical Decision Making Framework” on website of them (Starbucks Corporation b,
2013). Starbucks catalogues 6 points to this framework to escort and ideal decision
making behaviour:
1) Recognize the ethical difficulty.
2) Catalogue probable resolutions contrasting with any difficulties to ascertain
problem.
3) Pursue input by other.
4) Ascertain the best approach.
5) Ask for guidance if the trail is not clear.
6) Follow across on your choice.
Following this framework, employees are notified that: You are inspired of seizing
decision, you have obligation to increase company, you have aid like the Standards
of Company Conduct and the Company Conduct Helpline, you have a voice and you
can articulate up and allocate your concerns (Starbucks Corporation b, 2008)
May 10, 2013 [PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
5
The way to communicate, values and decision making embody is merely a tiny
portion of the concept that makes-up organizational theory and behaviour. Starbucks
has pondered on the prosperous request of these three spans of organizational
behaviour. With this thriving request, Starbucks condescendingly encourages and
dividends the models that create them prosperous to anybody who cares to
investigate. As a consequence, Starbucks endures to be a prosperous corporation.
Individual differences and diversity
Individual difference can nurture creativity, pleasure and satisfaction at work but can
additionally be the origin of skirmish and frustration at work in an organisation. The
thought of diversity encompasses agreement and respect understanding that every
single individual is unique; it is a will to make sure that every individual has his own
personality and its effects on organisation. Individual difference and diversity could
encompass of; communal and traditional factors, physique, cultural basis, gender
whether individual is male or female, nationwide sophistication, attitudes whether
individual is good communicator or short tempered, motivation level of individual,
personality traits, classes & intellect, skills of them and perception. All these
characteristics give to larger understanding of self and others and account for
variation in performance (Mullins, 2010). Diversity is usually described as
consenting, acknowledging, understanding, valuing and celebrating gaps amid
people together with respect to class, age, ethnicity, contest, gender, sexual
orientation, physical and mental skill, divine exercise and area assistance rank (Esty,
et al., 1995).
Benefits
According to Department of State Civil Services (2001), work clusters that have good
diversity skills could relish a number of benefits of possessing a varied workforce
and the skills vital for grasping that diversity. Varied talents and backgrounds
subsidise to competitive supremacy, increased occupation increases productivity
and benefits larger community. Diversity brings extra change and adaptability, higher
productivity, creativity, quality and teamwork, larger contact, recruitment and
retention of the best operatives, broader capability offerings broad collection of
viewpoints, extra competency, larger client loyalty, enhanced operative morale and
provides equitable work environment.
May 10, 2013 [PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
6
Even though associates are reliant in the workplace, respecting individual contrasts
can raise productivity. Diversity is helpful to associates and organisations. Diversity
in the workplace can cut lawsuits and rise recruitment, marketing opportunities,
company picture and creativity (Esty, et al., 1995). The aftermath (waste of time &
money) ought not to be disregarded. In the period after elasticity and creativeness
are secrets to competitiveness, diversity is precarious for an organization’s
prosperousness. Competent managers can drive a sequence that matches the
needs and expectations of the individual alongside the necessities of the
associations to hook up the benefits. This exceptional package of disparate qualities
and characteristics forms our benefits and what we design to give and what we
anticipate to accord from working. Individual contrasts are the basis of diversity.
May 10, 2013 [PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
7
Difference between Groups and Teams and its Application
Major differences amid team and group are: Team is manipulated in size but group is
medium or colossal, team is critical by selection but group is immaterial, team is
shared or rotating leadership but group has just one head to pursue, team consists
of public vision understanding but group focuses on leader, team has act range
coordination but group energizes convergence conformism, team has vibrant contact
but cluster rely on persecution of opponents (Mullins, 2010). Here, we will discuss
further groups and teams.
For instance, if we talk about group, a Subway forms a team; one person portions
the bread open and places your meat on it the subsequent asks if customer desire
cheese toasted or not. Next the last one asks what veggies and condiments you
should like on tour snack. Groups can incline to be perpetual fixtures, alongside
resumed aims or responsibilities. Now on the other hand, if we speak about teams,
beforehand a tiny company generates a new product; it could coordinate a team
containing people from different departments like lawful, finance, engineering,
marketing, etc. to ponder all aspects of the possible new product to circumvent
expensive surprises down the road. With team, people understand the skill and
abilities of others demanded to accomplish the goal of team. Moreover, teams are
frequently industrialized for provisional assignments along-with one specific focus,
goal or consequence in mind.
For instance, the manager has to be cognizant of the encounter of groups and teams
and their results on organisational performance. Groups are collection of people who
allocate the characteristics of definable membership, consciousness, sense of
allocate patriotic, interdependence, contact and skill to perform in unitary manner.
Manager ought to use them on bigger undertakings and projects to outcome most of
their benefits (Adair, 1986). On the other hand, the teams transpire after a number of
people have a public aim and understand that their personal achievement relies on
the accomplishment of others. In exercise, in most teams people will give individual
skills, numerous of that will be different. So teams ought to be created to fulfil aims
that are needed for the projects (Crainer, 1998).
It is said that two heads are always superior to one, so a manager can coil company
to groups or departments for countless reasons. Inside clusters, associates have a
May 10, 2013 [PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
8
public vision of the group’s goals, but specific tasks or obligations are allocated to
disparate individuals. By separating work into clusters – such as one devoted to
marketing, one devoted to accounting, etc. – people inside those clusters are able to
maximize their expertise on a long-term basis. On the other hand, businesses form
teams normally to tackle a specific – and normally provisional – aim or undertaking
alongside the intention of leveraging the collective expertise of a collection of people.
Understanding Motivation Theories
Motivation has been described as a steering power inside persons by that they
endeavour to accomplish objective, in order to fulfil need or expectation. Two vital
bands of theories are; content theories and process theories. Content theories are
distressed alongside recognizing what factors in an individual or the work nature that
energize and uphold behaviour. Procedure theories endeavour to delineate how
behaviour is energized, managed and sustained. Process theories endeavour to
delineate variables in choice. A content theory and a procedure theory will be
discussed further (Mullins, 1996).
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg et al. (1959) and Lindner (1998) established this motivational theory on a
discovery of demand satisfaction. Herzberg and his associates asked the subjects to
contemplate of periods both after they contacted exceptionally good and bad
concerning their jobs. Donnelly et al. (1995) state that every single operative was
then asked to delineate the conditions that managed to these feelings. Instituted on
the detection, Herzberg grasped two conclusions:
1. Certain job conditions operate chiefly to dissatisfy employees after they are not
present, Herzberg titled these as maintenance factors and he recognized ten factors:
Firm strategy and management, Technical supervision, Interpersonal relations
alongside the supervisor, Interpersonal relations alongside peers, , Salary, Job
protection, Confidential existence, Working conditions and operative Status. The
attendance of these conditions does not craft forceful motivation.
2. Certain job circumstances craft elite inspiration and career gratification. Herzberg
delineated six of given motivational aspects: Success, Gratitude, Progression, The
May 10, 2013 [PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
9
job itself, Obligation and Development. Their absence does not clarify exceedingly
dissatisfaction (Herzberg et. al. 1959).
Expectancy Theory
Expectancy is the understanding of the probability that the wanted satisfaction will be
attained by the selected behaviour. This theory asserts that operatives are motivated
to create ranges amid behaviours. If operatives trust that the power will be
recompensed and there will be motivated power, that is there, they will do hard-work
to accord a reward. Variables in expectancy theory are choice, expectation and
preference. Choice is the independence to choose from an amount of behaviours.
Expectancy is an acceptance that there are precise behaviours which will or will not
be successful. Preferences are the aids a person assigns to disparate outcomes
(Mullins, 2007).
Motivation Increasing Strategies
Job Enrichment
The thought of quality work existence has consented attention for myriad decades.
Employees come to be increasingly dissatisfied and irritated by monotonous tasks.
Herzberg (1968), states that the consequence could be lower output, poor attitude,
lower quality, absence, elevated incomings and pressure for larger conditions and
larger participation in decision-making. Job enrichment is a motivational techniques,
it provides operatives alongside an opportunity to produce psychologically and
mature in a job. Job enrichment endeavours to create the job itself motivational.
Scrutiny indicates that jobs higher in enrichment factors consequence in higher
satisfaction; though, scrutiny additionally indicates that increased jobs need extra
training period and consequence in somewhat higher apprehension and stress
(Michael, 1988). Job enrichment increases a job’s scope and depth that mentions to
the number of hobbies and the autonomy, obligation, prudence and control (Macy,
1979) and (Mullins, 2007).
Merit Pay
The money that operative obtains is truly a package created up of income and
supplementary fringe benefits such as transport, housing, furniture, health
May 10, 2013 [PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
10
allowance, meal subsidy and utility allowances. The motivation theories debated,
counsel that and fringe benefits can have a little impact on power and persistence.
The money that operatives obtain is truly a package of income and benefits. In
Herzberg’s two-factor ideal wage is a maintenance factor that ought to not give
considerably to motivation. In expectancy theory, wage can gratify a collection of
needs and impact choice and behaviour. A number of studies expose that, in order
to inspire, an income design have to clarify that good presentation leads to higher
levels of wage, minimize each negative aftermath of good presentation and
associate supplementary rewards to good presentation (Mullins, 2007).
Flexible working Hours
The concept of flexible working hours has motivational call to numerous workforces.
Organisations are confronted alongside an increasingly varied workforce that
includes operatives alongside extremely disparate obligations and those seizing
classes or pursuing degrees to enhance talents and abilities or for self-improvement.
Scrutiny indicates that flexible positioning can be motivational in that job satisfaction
is enhanced and absence is decreased. The skill to accommodate operative needs
is a healthy and affirmative way to motivation (Mullins, 2007) and (Pierce, 1989).
Conclusion and Recommendation
It is the obligation of the manager to notice the possible in every single workers
associate and to apply the appropriate motivational strategy. Motivation is an
individual matter and one needs to understand and comprehend the people that are
to be motivated. People have their own aims and aspirations. Individual operatives
are being asked to create the association succeed. One cannot retain merely the
hand and the brain; the proprietor of that hand and mind have to always come
alongside, that is merely probable by motivation him.
May 10, 2013 [PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
11
Appendix:
Books References:
Adair, J. (1986), Effective Teambuilding, Aldershot: Gower
Crainer, S. (1988), Key Management Ide as: Thinkers That Changed the
Management World, 3
rd Edition, FT Prentice Hall
Donnelly, J. H., Gibson, J.L., & Ivancevich, J.M. (1995), Fundamentals of
management. 9th ed. Chicago: Irwin.
Esty, K., Richard, G. and Marcie S. (1995), Workplace diversity: A manager’s guide
to solving problems and turning diversity into a competitive advantage. Avon, MA:
Adams Media Corporation.
Gibson, J. L., Ivancevich, J. M., & Donnelly, J. H. (1994). Organizations: Behavior,
structure, processes. 8th ed. Boston: Homewood, IL: Irwin.
Goldstien, E. B. (2006). Sensation and Perception (7th ed.). New York: Wadsworth.
Herzberg, F., Mauser, B., & Snyderman, G. (1959). The motivation to work. New
York: John Wiley
Knights, D and Wilmott, H. (2007) Introducing Organizational Behaviour and
Management. London: Thomson Learning
Kreitner, R. (1995). Management. 6th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Macy Brown A.(1979). A progress report on the Bolivia Quality of life project. New
York: John Wiley.
McShane, S. Glinow, M. V. (2009) Organizational Behavior, (5th Ed), McGraw-Hill
Education
Mullins, L. (1996), Management and Organizational Behaviour, (4
th ed); London:
Pitman.
Mullins, L. (2007), Management and Organisational Behaviour, (8th ed); Financial
Times Prentice Hall
Mullins, L. (2010), Management and Organisational Behaviour, (9th ed); Financial
Times Prentice Hall
May 10, 2013 [PEOPLE’S MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR]
12
Pierce, J. L. (1989). Alternative work schedules. Neutham Height, MA: Allyn and
Bacon.
Robbins, S.P. and Judge, T.A. (2009) Organizational Behaviour (13 ed) London:
Pearson Education
Internet Sources:
Marques, J. F. (2008). Spiritual performance from an organizational perspective: the
Starbucks way. Corporate Governance (Vol. 8, pp. 248-257). : Emerald Group
Publishing Limited. ProQuest Database.
Available: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=1472-
0701&volume=8&issue=3&articleid=1729340&show=html [electronically accessed:
23-04-2013]
Mitchell, T. R. (1982). Motivation: New directions for theory and research. Academy
of Management, Review 17 (1):80-88. Avaiable: http://www.jstor.org/stable/257251
[Electronically accessed: 23-04-2013]
Starbucks Corporation a, Responsibilities,
http://www.starbucks.com/responsibility
Starbucks Corporation b, Ethical Decision Making Framework,
https://businessconduct.eawebline.com/EDM-Framework-English.pdf
Hawks, M., Kembell, B., Kembell, S., Olsen, L., & Perry, L. (2002). Catching the
Starbucks Fever. Retrieved 22-04-2013, from
http://www.academicmind.com/unpublishedpapers/business/marketing/2002-04-
000aag-catching-the-starbucks-fever.html
Department of State Civil Service, (2001), Individual Differences & Diversity
In The Workplace
http://www.civilservice.louisiana.gov/files/divisions/Training/Manuals/Diversity%20M
ANUAL%2001-13-12.pdf